Δημοσίευση

Differential effects of lacosamide, phenytoin and topiramate on peripheral nerve excitability: An ex vivo electrophysiological study.

ΤίτλοςDifferential effects of lacosamide, phenytoin and topiramate on peripheral nerve excitability: An ex vivo electrophysiological study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsZafeiridou, G., Spilioti M., Kagiava A., Krikonis K., Kosmidis E. K., Karlovasitou A., & Kimiskidis V. K.
JournalNeurotoxicology
Volume52
Pagination57-63
Date Published2016 Jan
ISSN1872-9711
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainly used to control cortical hyperexcitability. Some of them (e.g. phenytoin (PHT) and topiramate (TPM)) have also effects on the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Lacosamide (LCM) is a novel AED that stabilizes hyperexcitable neuronal membranes by selectively enhancing the slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although the mechanism of action of LCM is fairly well understood, there are no in vitro data available regarding any possible PNS effects of LCM.OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in vitro, the effects of LCM on peripheral nerve excitability in comparison with PHT and TPM, two AEDs that act, in part, by stabilizing the fast inactivation state of VGSCs.METHODS: Experiments were conducted on the isolated sciatic nerve of the adult rat using standard electrophysiological methods. The effects of LCM on the amplitude and latency of the evoked compound action potential (CAP) during a 48h period of drug exposure were recorded and compared with the effects of PHT and TPM.RESULTS: LCM produced inhibitory effects on CAP at concentrations significantly higher than the therapeutic levels (>25μg/ml). At these concentrations (62.57-125.15μg/ml), an acute and immediate increment of the latency and decrement of the amplitude of the CAP were observed. In contrast to LCM, PHT caused an acute decrement in the amplitude as well as an increment in the latency of the CAP even at subtherapeutic levels (5μg/ml). With regard to TPM, the amplitude of the CAP was not affected at the supratherapeutic concentrations but at the therapeutic concentration of 33.94μg/ml a reduced decrement of the CAP amplitude compared to the controls was observed.CONCLUSIONS: LCM, PHT and TPM exert differential effects on peripheral nerve excitability. PHT inhibited the sciatic nerve CAP even at subtherapeutic levels whereas LCM was safe within the therapeutic concentration range. TPM did not affect the CAP amplitude even at high supratherapeutic concentrations whereas in the therapeutic range a neuroprotective effect was observed. Possible underlying mechanisms and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

DOI10.1016/j.neuro.2015.10.016
Alternate JournalNeurotoxicology
PubMed ID26542247

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