Δημοσίευση

Abnormal muscles that may affect axillary lymphadenectomy: surgical anatomy.

ΤίτλοςAbnormal muscles that may affect axillary lymphadenectomy: surgical anatomy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsNatsis, K., Vlasis K., Totlis T., Paraskevas G., Noussios G., Skandalakis P., & Koebke J.
JournalBreast Cancer Res Treat
Volume120
Issue1
Pagination77-82
Date Published2010 Feb
ISSN1573-7217
Λέξεις κλειδιάAxilla, Cadaver, Female, Humans, Lymph Node Excision, Male, Muscle, Skeletal
Abstract

Purpose The present study aimed at summarizing and presenting the anomalous muscles that a surgeon might encounter during axillary lymphadenectomy (AL). Methods For this purpose, both the anatomical and surgical literature was reviewed and an anatomical study on 107 cadavers was carried out. Furthermore, based on the anatomical features of the anomalous muscles that came up during our study and taking into consideration the landmarks of the AL, we further analyzed the complications that may arise from each of these muscles, along with their preoperative and intraoperative recognition and management. Results The literature review revealed that there are three supernumerary muscles that may affect the AL, namely the Langer's axillary arch, the pectoralis quartus and the chondroepitrochlearis muscles, as well as the aplasia of the lower part of the pectoralis major muscle. Eight out of the 107 (7.48%) cadavers that we dissected had such an abnormal muscle in the axilla. Specifically, the axillary arch was found unilaterally in five cadavers (4.67%) and the pectoralis quartus muscle was present unilaterally in three cadavers (2.8%). One cadaver had both an axillary arch and a pectoralis quartus muscle in the right side. The abdominal and almost the whole sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major as well the pectoralis minor muscle were absent in one cadaver (0.93%). The chondroepitrochlearis muscle was not found in any of the cadavers that we dissected. Conclusions The present study offers the necessary preoperative knowledge for recognizing these muscles during AL, avoiding thus the complications that may arise from them.

DOI10.1007/s10549-009-0374-5
Alternate JournalBreast Cancer Res. Treat.
PubMed ID19306056

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