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Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance of Greek Clostridium difficile clinical isolates.

TitleAntimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance of Greek Clostridium difficile clinical isolates.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsChatedaki, C., Voulgaridi I., Kachrimanidou M., Hrabak J., Papagiannitsis C. C., & Petinaki E.
JournalJ Glob Antimicrob Resist
Date Published2019 03
KeywordsAnti-Bacterial Agents, Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium Infections, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Greece, Hospitals, Humans, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Multilocus Sequence Typing, Mutation

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Clostridium difficile recovered in Greek hospitals during 2012-2015.
METHODS: C. difficile isolates (n=88) were collected from clinically-confirmed C. difficile infection from symptomatic patients in 10 Greek hospitals. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antimicrobial agents were determined by Etest. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Toxin and resistance genes were detected by PCR. Chromosomal mutations in gyrA, gyrB and rpoB were identified by PCR and sequencing. The genetic environment of resistance genes was characterised by Illumina sequencing.
RESULTS: The 88 C. difficile isolates comprised 27 sequence types (STs), with ST37 (n=26) and ST11 (n=21) being the most prevalent. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, with variable resistance rates to other antimicrobials. Of the 88 isolates, 45.5% were multidrug-resistant and the majority belonged to ST11 and ST37. The presence of chromosomal mutations in gyrA, gyrB and rpoB was mainly observed in high-risk clones such as ST11 and ST37. The antimicrobial resistance genes ermB, mefA, msrA and tetM were identified at different prevalences and combinations. Additionally, cfrB and cfrC were identified for the first time in Greece and were carried by a Tn6218 transposon and a novel plasmid, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the resistance profiles and respective mechanisms of C. difficile recovered in Greek hospitals. Gut commensals such as C. difficile may serve as hubs for further transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes.

Alternate JournalJ Glob Antimicrob Resist
PubMed ID30266640


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