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Severe Extravasation Injuries in Neonates: A Report of 34 Cases.

TitleSevere Extravasation Injuries in Neonates: A Report of 34 Cases.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsKostogloudis, N., Demiri E., Tsimponis A., Dionyssiou D., Ioannidis S., Chatziioannidis I., & Nikolaidis N.
JournalPediatr Dermatol
Date Published2015 Nov-Dec

INTRODUCTION: Extravasation injuries are a common and challenging problem in hospitalized newborns. Accidental infusion leakage into the surrounding tissues in immature infants may frequently result in skin necrosis, with significant risk of functional and cosmetic impairment.MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study we reviewed 34 cases of severe extravasation injuries occurring in 1,409 neonates hospitalized in a single neonatal unit over 24 months (incidence 2.4%). Total parenteral nutrition solutions were involved in most cases. All patients were treated within 30 minutes after the injury was recorded using a flush-out technique with normal saline irrigation and occlusive paraffin dressings of the infiltrated area.RESULTS: The majority of injuries affected preterm, low-birthweight infants (mean gestation 32 wks + 6 days, mean birth weight 1,885 g), with a mean age at the time of injury of 11.6 days and a mean weight of 2,045 g. Neither gestational age (p = 0.87) or birthweight significantly affected (p = 0.07) the incidence of extravasation injuries, although the incidence of skin necrosis had a significant correlation with gestational age (p = 0.009) and birthweight (p < 0.001). All patients responded well to treatment and their wounds healed uneventfully within a maximum of 25 days without the need for secondary surgery for skin coverage.CONCLUSION: Extravasation injuries in extremely preterm and low-birthweight infants are more likely to lead to skin necrosis. Peripheral venous catheterization should be performed with caution in these patients to prevent such injuries. Immediate irrigation with normal saline is recommended to reduce toxic sequelae in the infiltrated area.

Alternate JournalPediatr Dermatol
PubMed ID26337780


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