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Long term effects of olfactory training in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss.

TitleLong term effects of olfactory training in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKonstantinidis, I., Tsakiropoulou E., & Constantinidis J.
Date Published2016 Jun
KeywordsAdult, Aged, Aldehydes, Cyclohexanols, Discrimination (Psychology), Eugenol, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Monoterpenes, Odorants, Olfaction Disorders, Phenylethyl Alcohol, Recovery of Function, Respiratory Tract Infections, Sensory Thresholds

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of the effectiveness of repeated exposure to odours on short-term olfactory function. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of olfactory training.METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 111 patients with post-infectious olfactory dysfunction. Two groups of patients performed olfactory training for 16 and 56 weeks, respectively, and were compared with a control group. The training was performed twice daily using four odours (phenyl ethyl alcohol, eucalyptol, citronellal, eugenol). Olfactory testing was performed by means of the Sniffin Sticks test as a baseline assessment and then every 8 weeks for 56 weeks. Subjective ratings were performed using a visual analogue scale (0-100).RESULTS: Both training groups presented significantly higher scores than the controls. The long-term group had better results than the short-term group. Short-term training patients sustained their improvement within the follow-up period. Subsets analysis showed that training patients mainly increased identification and discrimination. Subjective ratings were in accordance with the olfactory test results.CONCLUSION: Long-term olfactory training seems to be associated with better results in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss than a short-term scheme. Short-term training provides sustainable results at 56 weeks follow-up assessment.

Alternate JournalRhinology
PubMed ID27017331


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